It serves as a special favorite for a lot of people since it is situated in the south of the city, a little far away from all the hustle and bustle, providing a place of peace and tranquility while the river flows in front as the sun sets. All the circumambulation paths include the Ghats and invite millions of devotees along this sacred route. There is a continuous semi-circular stretch ghats along the river form the Assi in the south to the Rajghat in the north. Indian J Eng Mater Sci 5:162–166. Varanasi – 221002 Series: MINARS/37 /2014-15. With River Assi almost dead, measures should immediately be undertaken to safeguard the Varuna. Though officially the breadth of the Bahini was supposed to be 40 ft, it has been reduced to 5–10 ft at various placesFootnote 6 resulting in the submersion of the surrounding areas during the rainy days. This increasing population is over burdening the carrying capacity of the urban environment and the river ecosystem and unplanned mass tourism could potentially have a hard impact on the cultural carrying capacity of the old city centre. The project report of Varanasi Development Authority (VDA) reveals that Varuna is currently the core disposal body of 65 % of drainage of the district. Enjoy this moment to have an everlasting memory. See Known as the pakka mahal, it consists of a web of mohallas, intricately weaved together. The triangulated open space a the bifurcation of the two roads of dasashwamedh ghat was earlier the are where godavari stream used to flow. See Ramsar Convention is an intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. A nice look of the Vishwa Sundari Pool is caught from the Assi ghat in the picture. The river is an essential component of all the scared ritual practices on the ghat area. Rightly so, there was a time when the free flowing River Bharalu in Assam provided potable water to thousands of people living on its banks. On a positive note, the Bharalu, Varuna and Mula–Mutha are listed among the 445 rivers (in 29 States and 6 Union Territories in India) monitored by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India, with the central aim of restoring and maintaining the wholesomeness of these water bodies (CPCB 2015). Situated at the confluence of Ganga and Assi rivers, Assi Ghat is  bathe before paying their homage to Lord Shiva in the form of huge lingam situated under a peepal tree. As financial centres, Indian cities attract a large population from the nearby suburban and rural areas. Most of the tourists are connected to the Jewish community at the Assi Ghat. Devotees must not miss the opportunity of visiting the Dasaswamedh Ghat in the evening when after Aarti, thousands of earthen lamps are immersed in the waters of the holy Ganges and the floating lamps give a divine look to the river at dusk. Kedar, dasashwamedh, manas sarovar, chaushatti yogini, agnishwar, mangala gauri, bindu madhav, durga, brahma, trilochan, ram and adi keshav. Nevertheless, it has been observed that the only time these rivulets create interests and come into limelight is when a major city is inundated under water due to poor drainage system. The two ill-drained areas, formerly occupied by the Godaulia Nala and the Misra Pokhra Jhil (tank) in the south and the Maidagin and Machhodari tank in the north seem to have disappeared. One more Shiva Lingam is here named Asisangameshwar lingam in a small temple of the marble near to the Assi Ghat. With the time passes, the Varanasi was known as Avimuktaka, Mahasmasana, Surandhana, Anandakanana, Brahma Vardha, Sudarsana, Ramya, and Kasi. If one ever does visit Varanasi, one must go to the Assi Ghat, not purely for its mythological significance but to experience a more quiet and quaint aspect of Varanasi. In addition to significant urban and industrial pollution, encroachment activities could be attributed as the single largest threat for sustaining a healthy and sound river system in Indian cities. Ltd. That’s why the place has been named as Assi Ghat as it is located at the union of the River Ganga and Assi River. The present situation of both the Varuna and Assi illustrates an unfortunate scenario. Assi ghat is place of huge crowd during any Hindu festivals where devotees come to take holy bath in the Gange water to get rid of from their all the past sin. It is the place where Gautama Buddha has given his first sermon at the holy place named Sarnath. The high concave bank of the ganga formed of lime concretions washed by the perennial deep water channel did furnish protective as well as attractive site of human occupancy. Earliest (at the time of Gautama Buddha), Varanasi was the capital of Kashi Kingdom. The Machhodari tank was drained into the Ganga though an underground channel and its site was turned into a park with a small tank left in the middle. It is also considered that before any Pooja, bathing in the Gange water prepare the one for doing Pooja. The introduction of various branches of the Northern and the North eastern railways along with the construction of the railway bridge near Rajghat, installation of water works and provision of improved sewerage and drainage works widely modified the cultural landscape of Varanasi in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Energy Ecol Environ 1(1):30–38. Anant Narayan Singh, the son of Dr. Vibhuti Narayan Singh, became the next king of the Benares after his father death. The significant but haphazard growth of the city on the banks of the Mula–Mutha is causing serious threat to the river system in absence of a rigorous environmental monitoring system. The trees have fallen due to aging and no new plantation has been done. The Ramnagar fort and its museum tell the true history of the kings of Benares. What a nice pic of the nature looks very natural and real caught early in the morning by the photographer at the ghat. The oldest core of the city is definitely in the northern zone which is for the most part practically unhabitated, with an elongated projection along the ganga to a little north of the dasawamedh ghat. At Manikarnika Ghat, the mortal remains are consigned to flames with the prayers that the souls rest in eternal peace. It makes the mind, soul and body clean and peaceful and fills with the spiritual thoughts. Manikarnika Ghat is the main cremation Ghat of Varanasi. Varanasi - Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi - The most ancient surviving city. The deteriorating river system in India poses major challenges to the sustenance of cities situated along them. Today, the unesthetic sight of the Mula–Mutha in Pune is both unfortunate and perturbing. I respect a person who is disciplined and respect others. The God Shiva says, in the ancient, Varanasi city was founded by the Hindu deity the Lord Shiva which makes it one of the most important and old pilgrimage destinations in the India. The current temples and other religious places in Kashi are of 18th century. The riverfront of Ganga comprises of a series of 84 Ghats as a special chain of sacred places Ghats bear testimony to the uniqueness of Ghat architecture which is a mosaic of different cultures. Lying at the center of the five tirthas, Manikarnika Ghat symbolizes both creation and destruction. The Varuna and Assi have great historical and mythological significance. There are an immense pressures from tourism, economic development and population pressures which are now threatening the unity and integrity of the cultural landscape and atmosphere, and the urban skyline of the ghat area.

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