Enzymes are the active proteins (except RNAse) that can catalyze biochemical reactions. This is because the salivary amylase digests starch into glucose. (Frequently Asked Questions) About the Author. Similarly, they favor the digestive system and stimulate the production of metabolic enzymes in the human body. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. N.V. Bhagavan, Chung-Eun Ha, in Essentials of Medical Biochemistry, 2011. Category:Oxidoreductases (EC 1) (Oxidoreductase), Category:EC 1.1 (act on the CH-OH group of donors), Category:EC 1.2 (act on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors), Category:EC 1.3 (act on the CH-CH group of donors), Category:EC 1.5 (act on CH-NH group of donors), Category:EC 1.7 (act on other nitrogenous compounds as donors), Category:EC 1.8 (act on a sulfur group of donors), Category:EC 1.9 (act on a heme group of donors), Category:EC 1.10 (act on diphenols and related substances as donors), Category:EC 1.11 (act on peroxide as an acceptor -- peroxidases), Category:EC 1.12 (act on hydrogen as a donor), Category:EC 1.13 (act on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen), Category:EC 1.14 (act on paired donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen), Category:EC 1.15 (act on superoxide radicals as acceptors), Category:EC 1.18 (act on iron-sulfur proteins as donors), Category:EC 1.19 (act on reduced flavodoxin as donor), Category:EC 1.20 (act on phosphorus or arsenic as donors), Category:EC 1.21 (act on X-H and Y-H to form an X-Y bond), Category:Transferases (EC 2) (Transferase), Category:EC 2.1 (transfer one-carbon groups, Methylase), Category:EC 2.2 (transfer aldehyde or ketone groups), Category:EC 2.5 (transfer alkyl or aryl groups, other than methyl groups), Category:EC 2.6 (transfer nitrogenous groups), Category:EC 2.7 (transfer phosphorus-containing groups), Category:EC 2.8 (transfer sulfur-containing groups), Category:EC 2.9 (transfer selenium-containing groups), Category:EC 3.2 (act on sugars - glycosylases), Category:EC 3.4 (act on peptide bonds - Peptidase), Category:EC 3.5 (act on carbon-nitrogen bonds, other than peptide bonds), Category:EC 3.7 (act on carbon-carbon bonds), Category:EC 3.9 (act on phosphorus-nitrogen bonds), Category:EC 3.10 (act on sulfur-nitrogen bonds), Category:EC 3.11 (act on carbon-phosphorus bonds), Category:EC 3.12 (act on sulfur-sulfur bonds), Category:EC 3.13 (act on carbon-sulfur bonds), Category:EC 4.6 (phosphorus-oxygen lyases), Category:EC 5.1 (racemases and epimerases), Category:EC 5.3 (intramolecular oxidoreductases), Category:EC 5.4 (intramolecular transferases -- mutases), Category:EC 6.1 (form carbon-oxygen bonds), Category:EC 6.2 (form carbon-sulfur bonds), Category:EC 6.3 (form carbon-nitrogen bonds), Category:EC 6.4 (form carbon-carbon bonds), Category:EC 6.5 (form phosphoric ester bonds), Category:EC 6.6 (form nitrogen-metal bonds), International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+), 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate reductase, Vitamin-K-epoxide reductase (warfarin-sensitive), Vitamin-K-epoxide reductase (warfarin-insensitive), 2-Succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic-acid synthase, Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, tRNA-5-taurinomethyluridine 2-sulfurtransferase, tRNA-5-methyluridine(54) 2-sulfurtransferase, O-phospho-L-seryl-tRNA(Sec):L-selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase, Alkenylglycerophosphoethanolamine hydrolase, 2'-hydroxybiphenyl-2-sulfinate desulfinase, (CysO sulfur-carrier protein)-S-L-cysteine hydrolase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine hydrolase (adenosine-forming), 2-chloro-4-carboxymethylenebut-2-en-1,4-olide isomerase, 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase, Long-chain-fatty-acid-luciferin-component ligase, Long-chain-fatty-acid-(acyl-carrier-protein) ligase, 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestanate-CoA ligase, (2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl)acetyl-CoA synthase, (butirosin acyl-carrier protein)—L-glutamate ligase, 3-((3aS,4S,7aS)-7a-methyl-1,5-dioxo-octahydro-1H-inden-4-yl)propanoate-CoA ligase, 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-5-methyl-1-naphthoate-CoA ligase, L-allo-isoleucine--holo-CmaA peptidyl-carrier protein ligase, Medium-chain-fatty-acid-(acyl-carrier-protein) ligase, Long-chain fatty acid adenylyltransferase FadD28, 4-hydroxybenzoate adenylyltransferase FadD22, 4-hydroxyphenylalkanoate adenylyltransferase FadD29, L-proline-L-prolyl-carrier protein ligase, D-alanine-D-alanyl-carrier protein ligase, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_enzymes&oldid=985412703, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from February 2019, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 October 2020, at 20:22. 1.14). These cookies do not store any personal information. His discovery and subsequent structural analysis was one of the shining hours of modern biochemistry. Enzymes are subjected to regulation, to adapt to the requirements of different cells. Enzymes are defined as biological catalysts, capable of accelerating chemical reactions in both directions, without being consumed in it, or being part of the products. Beyond this maximum, enzyme activity rapidly drops. The coenzyme-bound apoenzyme constitutes the holoenzyme. Therefore, the criteria defining coenzymes and prosthetic groups are not strict. These enzymes include. All three enzyme activities were completely retained in the CLEA and the latter was recycled three times without appreciable loss of activity. 1.SGOT is also called as aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The final product of digestion i.e. One of the earliest written references to enzymes is found in Homer’s Greek epic poems dating from about 800 BC, where it was mentioned that enzymes were used in the production of cheese. In most cases, they are broken down into glucose. Enzyme technology offers industries and consumers an opportunity to replace processes using aggressive chemicals with mild and environmentally friendly enzyme processes. Cofactors that are covalently bonded to the enzyme are called prosthetic groups. Although an enzyme generally consists of protein, a few enzymes contain non-protein components such as nucleic acid. Enzymes are used for this purpose where some inborn errors of metabolism occur due to missing of an enzyme where specific genes are introduced to encode specific missing enzymes. What is the Prognosis, Hypervitaminosis A and D: Symptoms, Side Effects and Treatment, Causes and Home Remedies of Hot Urine in Males and Females, Lipolytic Enzymes: break down fats in to glycerol and fatty acids, Proteolytic Enzymes: break down proteins in to amino acids, Amylolytic Enzymes: break down carbohydrates in to simple sugars, Nucleolytic Enzyme: break down nucleic acids in to nucleotides, Ptyalin: this enzyme breaks down carbohydrates in to simple single molecule sugars, Amylase: his enzyme too, breaks down carbohydrates in to simple single molecule sugars, Bromelaine: is an anti-inflammatory compound, and tenderizes meat, Pepsin: breaks down proteins in to smaller peptides, Gastric amylase: breaks down carbs in to simple sugar, Gelatinase: breaks down gelatin and collagen present in meat, Trypsin: breaks down peptides in to amino acids, Chymotrypsin: breaks down proteins in to aromatic amino acids, Pancreatic amylase: converts carbs in to simple sugar, Nuclease: converts nucleic acids in to nucleotides. As the name indicates, they are prominently acting on the nucleic acids. Therefore, the determination of enzyme concentrations (milligrams per liter) is of importance in providing a reference point for the measurement of enzyme activity. The enzyme adapts to the substrate via a conformational change known as induced fit. They also help the division of molecules, such as transferase, and the regulation of some biological processes in the body. In general, coenzymes are vitamins or derivatives of vitamins. Like chemical catalysts, enzymes increase the reaction rate by lowering its activation energy (Ea), hence, products are formed faster and reactions reach their equilibrium state more rapidly. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). They acquire activity after hydrolysis of a portion of their molecule.

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