Videotapes of progressive relaxation exercises were shown to one group of patients and neutral videotapes to another group. The following table displays data for years through 2007. 2.11 that bell-shaped, triangular, reverse J-shaped, J-shaped, right-skewed, and left-skewed distributions are unimodal. Choosing the Classes We have explained how to group quantitative data into specified classes, but we have not discussed how to choose the classes. YES! Using Technology to Organize Qualitative Data In this Technology Center, we present output and step-by-step instructions for using technology to obtain frequency distributions, relative-frequency distributions, pie charts, and bar charts for qualitative data. Nightingale felt that charts and diagrams were a means of making statistical information understandable to people who would otherwise be unwilling to digest the dry numbers. Identify two main types of variables. Explain your answer. Data on hospital type for U.S. registered hospitals can be found on the WeissStats CD. The report is designed to assist consumers with information on the quality of services provided by the airlines. Blocking also makes possible the separate analysis of treatment effects on each block. 5. 2.7 at the top of the next page. A study by researchers at the University of Maryland addressed the question of whether the mean body temperature of humans is 98.6◦ F. The results of the study by P. Mackowiak et al. Statistics of Income, Individual Income Tax Returns. 1.6. EXAMPLE 2.22 Using Technology to Obtain a Stem-and-Leaf Diagram Cholesterol Levels Table 2.13 on page 59 provides the cholesterol levels of 20 patients with high levels. Hardcover. Reviewed in the United States on November 2, 2016. 10–11), J. Netting described the research of E. Tibbetts of the University of Arizona in the article, “The Kind of Face Only a Wasp Could Trust.” Tibbetts found that wasps signal their strength and status with the number of black splotches on their yellow faces, with more splotches denoting higher status. Lower class cutpoints c. Class marks d. Class midpoints 13. Chances are 19 of 20 that if all adults with telephones in the U.S. had been surveyed, the finding would differ from these poll results by no more than 2.2 percentage points in either direction among all adults and 2.5 among registered voters. Step 3 For each distinct value, construct a vertical bar whose height equals the relative frequency of that value. For instance, suppose you have data on the heights, in inches, of the students in your class. Class marks (or midpoints) can also be used, in which case each bar is centered over the mark (or midpoint) of the class it represents. Following is some information obtained from the 20 students who participated in the 2003 workshop. 2.2 Organizing Qualitative Data Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Country the week ending October 19, 2008. 443–463), 60 Anacapa pelican eggs were collected and measured for their shell thickness, in millimeters (mm), and concentration of PCBs, in parts per million (ppm). Identify the methods and the corresponding terminologies. Explain your answer. The response variable is weight gain. To construct an ogive, we first make a Less than Cumulative frequency Cumulative relative frequency 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 3 4 12 22 29 36 40 0.000 0.075 0.100 0.300 0.550 0.725 0.900 1.000 Using Table 2.14, we can now construct an ogive for the days-to-maturity data. Under the auspices of the commission, the Army Medical School was founded. 29, No. Explain your answer. b. b. response variable. We begin with histograms. The Bureau of Economic Analysis gathers information on the length of stay in Europe and the Mediterranean by U.S. travelers. Age (yr) Less than 21 21–25 26–30 31–35 36–40 Over 40 Percentage 9 46 27 10 4 4 6. Note: If in Step 2 you decide on 10 for the class width and in Step 3 you choose 30 for the lower limit of the first class, then you will get the same classes as used in Example 2.13; otherwise, you will get different classes (which is fine). 2.15(b) accomplishes the same result but is less subject to misinterpretation; you are aptly warned by the slashes that part of the vertical axis between 0 and 500 has been removed. The results of the tallying procedure are shown in the second column of Table 2.7. 2) by J. Urbaniak, the cheetah is capable of speeds up to 72 mph. EXAMPLE 2.4 Variables and Data The World’s Highest Waterfalls The Information Please Almanac lists the world’s highest waterfalls. c. simple random sampling. Example 1.13 contrasts completely randomized designs and randomized block designs. Explain your answer. For example, the distribution of heights in Fig. The Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the United States publishes information in Motor Vehicle Facts and Figures on the ages of cars and trucks currently in use. Explain how you can use Table I in Appendix A to obtain the simple random sample. Steps for generating that output are presented in Instructions 2.4. The second column gives the stems, and the third column gives the leaves. b. 2.17 by sliding a piece of paper over the bottom of the graph so that the bars start at 16. b. Repeat part (a), but have the bars start at 18. c. What misleading impression about the year 2008 scores is given by the truncated graphs obtained in parts (a) and (b)? 3 Select Counts of unique values from the Bars represent drop-down list box 4 Select the Simple bar chart and click OK 5 Specify PARTY in the Categorical Variables text box 6 Click the Chart Options. 53–60). 2.90 Cardiovascular Hospitalizations. 0.4 Year 1 0.3 0.2 0.1 2.112 Educational Attainment. The Federal Reserve System publishes weekly figures of M2 money supply in the document Money Stock Measures. e. Suppose that the statement in part (d) is changed to: “Based on the AFI poll, Humphrey Bogart and Katharine Hepburn are the top-ranking male and female American screen legends among all artists, historians, critics, and other cultural dignitaries.” Is this statement descriptive or inferential? Among other things, choosing classes of equal width facilitates the graphical display of the data. Explain your answer. $24.87. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia. Refer to Example 2.16 on page 57. a. You can avoid the tedium by using technology. 2.8(a) is 8, 6, and 9. Explain your answers. Each treatment is a combination of a level of hydrophilic polymer and a level of irrigation regime. Upper class limit: The largest value that could go in a class. In the language of experimental design, each woman in the folic acid study is an experimental unit, or a subject. In Exercise 1.43 on page 15, you used simple random sampling to obtain a sample of 10 firms from Fortune Magazine’s list of “The International 500.” a. Use single-value grouping. 2.11(d)] and J-shaped distributions [Fig. A quantitative data set has been grouped by using cutpoint grouping with equal-width classes of width 8. a. r Control: The doctors compared the rate of major birth defects for the women who took folic acid to that for the women who took only trace elements. A nationwide New York Times/CBS News poll, conducted June 12–16, 2009, found wide support for the concept of a government-run health plan. DEFINITION 2.9 ? As described in the study, road rage is criminal behavior by motorists characterized by uncontrolled anger that results in violence or threatened violence on the road. 2.73 Tampa Bay Rays. Discuss the explanation in detail. The following relativefrequency histogram shows one year’s individual income tax returns for adjusted gross incomes of less than $50,000. Each observation must belong to one, and only one, class. a. Is this study descriptive or inferential? 14. According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the average cholesterol level for children between 4 and 19 years of age is 165 mg/dL. All rights reserved. 4, pp. Steps for generating that output are presented in Instructions 2.6. Dotplots Another type of graphical display for quantitative data is the dotplot. Construct a relativefrequency polygon for the energy-consumption data given in Exercise 2.56. There's a problem loading this menu right now. 20, pp. A Harris Poll of 1010 U.S. adults was taken by telephone on April 21, 2005, to determine how common it is for life support systems to be removed. Note that both Minitab and Excel use percents instead of relative frequencies. Hydrophilic polymers are used as soil additives to keep moisture in the root zone. Regardless of intent, we need to read and interpret graphs and charts with a great deal of care. b. A discrete variable usually involves a count of something, whereas a continuous variable usually involves a measurement of something. The second one refers to a field of study. 8 5 7 6 6 4 7 6 6 7 5 6 4 6 5 3 8 5 1 5 5 7 5 4 2.46 Number of Bedrooms. c. construct a bar chart. c. Is the sample representative of the population of all U.S. moviegoers? Discrete variable: A quantitative variable whose possible values can be listed. Republican 0.1 Democratic Relative frequency Political Party Affiliations Bar Charts Party Step 3 For each distinct value, construct a vertical bar whose height equals the relative frequency of that value.

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