Although there was a Jewish element, it was very much in the minority (cf. Further, Lydia was apparently one of the first converts, yet she herself was not Jewish (as Luke’s non-technical generic phrase for Gentile worshiper, “worshiper of God” implies). It should also be noted that there are two arguments against Ephesus as the point of origin. 4:15-16). The Author As with the Hauptbriefe, Philippians has enjoyed virtually full acceptance. Although Guthrie lists seven different arguments which favor Ephesus as the place of origin,5 the most substantive argument is the geographical proximity of Ephesus to Philippi. Indeed, it has recently been dated by one scholar as belonging to the first century!28 (2) There is a lack of discernible motive for uniting these two letters. In view of the prominence of Phillipi, Paul probably bypassed Neoapolis (Acts 16:11) to begin his preaching of the gospel in Macedonia in the Roman colony of Philippi, 1. Philippians - Introduction . 2:2; 3:16; 4:2). The style, manner of thought, and doctrine, accord with Paul's. Once again he speaks first of his own conduct, then that of his opponents (a pattern already seen in 1:12-26 and 1:27–4:1). Women occupied a prominent place in the church. The mission at Philippi: The mission through Paul and Silas is sovereignly directed by the Holy Spirit to Philippi where God sovereignly arranges for the conversion of several including Lydia (an Asian woman of commerce), and a Philippian jailer (a Greek/Roman man) before sending Paul and Silas out of the city 16:1-40, a. Prologue: the call to Macedonia: As the party, including at least Paul, Silas, Timothy, and Luke traveled, the Holy Spirit sovereignly directed their movement away from Asia to Macedonia 16:6-10, 1) Paul, Silas, and Timothy were forbidden by the Holy Spirit to speak the word of God in Asia, so they went through the regions of Phrygia and Galatia 16:6, 2) At Mysia the Spirit of Jesus did not allow them to go north to Bithynia, so they went down south to Troas 16:7-8, 3) In a vision to Paul a Macedonian man beckoned him to come west and help them 16:9, a) A vision appeared to Paul in the night 16:9a, b) A Macedonian man beckoned Paul to come west and help them 16:9b, 4) Those in the party (including Luke--”we”) immediately interpreted this dream as God’s sovereign direction to go to Macedonia to preach the gospel to the people there 16:10, b. , the large number of facts hard to invent, regarding which the readers are not definitely informed, but which are touched upon and elucidated in a conversational way under the presupposition that they are already known, together with the strong external evidence, particularly the evidence of the Philippian letter of Polycarp, a disciple of one of the apostles—might have safeguarded Philippians more even than the other Epistles of Paul against the suspicion of being the product of a later period.”2. 22 “To encourage partnership in the Gospel by reflecting upon the highest and most perfect expression of Christian life.” (E.E. The Carmen Christi (2:6-11) functions as a reminder for them to follow in the steps of Christ: if he who was in the “form of God” could humble himself, what right do believers have to refrain from doing the same thing? 4Corinth may be cited as a fouth possible location, but few have given this any serious attention. 2:13-16; Phil. No doctrinal error, or schism, has as yet sprung up; the only blemish hinted at is, that some of the Philippian Church were somewhat wanting in lowliness of mind, the result of which want was disputation. opposition will be a sign to their opponents that God is both with the Christians and against their enemies. But because their own sacrifice was so great they began to doubt God’s continued provision. Since we have placed the writing of this epistle within Paul’s (first) Roman imprisonment, it must be dated during his two-year tenure. Paul was a prisoner under house arrest for at least two years (Acts 28:30), 3. (1) Acts records no Ephesian imprisonment. 13 Paul could have appealed to his Roman citizenship in order to avoid a flogging, but did not. This principle of self-emptying, other-exalting is then skillfully woven into 2:12-30. 2:19-30). While in prison Paul was free to send letters and receive those who would come to him or bring gifts (Acts 28:17,30), 4. (2) Acts records Paul as in prison in Caesarea for two years. The composition of the hymn to Christ in Phil. This can only refer to the Roman imprisonment, for Acts shows that toward the end of Paul’s Caesarean imprisonment, Paul appealed to Caesar (Acts 25:11), prompting Agrippa to say to Festus, “This man could have been set free if he had not appealed to Caesar” (Acts 26:32). Without getting into any detailed analysis, it is our tentative position that the second view is substantially correct. 11. Acts 17:2). External Evidence: There never seems to have been a question about Pauline authorship by the church fathers. 3 He addresses himself to the Philippians and directly mentions Paul as having written to them (3.2). I. (Of course, believers’ exaltation cannot compare to Christ’s since, in part, believers’ humiliation does not compare to Christ’s.). and (4) Polycarp speaks of Paul’s letters (plural) to the Philippians, not letter (singular). As the opening verse makes abundantly clear, this letter was written to the church which Paul founded at Philippi—the first (Pauline) church of Europe. 19 See Hawthorne, Philippians, p. xlii. In Philippians 4:2 Philippians 4:3 a trace of the fact recorded in the history ( Acts 16:13 Acts 16:14 female converts were among the first to receive the Gospel at Philippi. THE EXAMPLE OF PAUL AS LIVING ABOVE CONFLICT, 1, FOUR OTHER EXAMPLES OF LIVING ABOVE SELF, 2, THE PURPOSE OF THE CHRISTIAN LIFE IS CHRIST-CENTERED, 3, THE POWER OF THE CHRISTIAN LIFE IS CHRIST, 4, Designed by Elegant Themes Essentially he found two elements which were unPauline: (1) the opening verse in which two classes of church leaders (“bishops and deacons” ) are mentioned, suggesting a period later than Paul’s day in terms of ecclesiastical development; and (2) the kenosis passage, or Carmen Christi (Phil. The EXTERNAL EVIDENCE is equally decisive: POLYCARP [Epistle to the Philippians, 3; 11]; IRENÆUS [Against Heresies, 4.18.4]; CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA [The Instructor, 1.1, p. 107]; EUSEBIUS [The Epistle of the Churches of Lyons and Vienne, in Ecclesiastical History, 5. Living Humbly as Servants of Christ (2:1-11), C. Living Obediently as Children of God (2:12-18), A. In this note of thanks Paul expresses his own contentment in God’s provisions (4:10-13), tactfully releasing them from further obligation (4:14-18) since the giving had apparently caused so much hardship. News of his appeal would certainly have spread to his churches. The book encouraged them to resist false teachings and threats from inside and outside the church. The fact that Timothy was with Paul (1:1; 2:19-23), 5. “If this is a correct assumption it could apply only to a trial from which no appeal could be made. Paul and Timothy greet the saints together with their leaders at Philippi (1:1-2). Many aspects of Paul’s imprisonment here could match the necessary events in the Philippian letter17, b. Consider themselves to have already arrived and to have attained a form of perfection in the eyes of God, F. To encourage the church to rejoice irrespective of circumstances (2:18; 3:1; 4:4)--to view imprisonment and suffering in light of a Christological framework:20, 1. Silva cites D. E. Garland’s article, “The Composition and Literary Unity of Philippians: Some Neglected Factors,” NovT (1985) 141-73 as “the most important contribution in this field,” with the accolade that Garland’s article “has, in my opinion, changed the complexion of the contemporary debate.”. The apostle Paul wrote this letter to the Christians in Philippi, probably from Rome c. a.d. 62. In 2003, he earned his Juris Doctorate, magna cum laude, from Capital University Law School, where he received the Order of the Curia. The Philippian church was the first church established in Europe. A colony was in fact a portion of Rome itself transplanted to the provinces, an offshoot from Rome, and as it were a portrait of the mother city on a small scale [AULUS GELLIUS, Attic Nights, 16.13]. This journey involved more than church-planting or follow-up; it also involved raising money for the Jerusalem congregations (cf. 1820 Jet Stream Drive, Colorado Springs, CO 80921 • 719.488.9200Terms of Use | Privacy Policy, The Book of the Twelve or the Minor Prophets, Biblica – The International Bible Society, Witnessing History in the Making: The Sorani Kurdish Bible Launch. The basis of his righteousness, therefore, is the faithfulness of Christ (3:9) and the goal is Christ’s resurrection power (3:10-11). Therefore, a date in 61 CE seems most reasonable. The many personal references of the author fit what we know of Paul from other NT books. If Paul were in prison in Ephesus, there would be no problem with the number of communications. 1:19-20), 5) Acts does not speak of an Ephesian imprisonment, a. 2:19,20), visited them on at least two other occasions (Acts 16; 20:1-6), and received gifts from them on several occasions (Phil. Several Locations Are Suggested As the Place of Writing:16, a.

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