12, free molecular visualization programs displayed potential donor-acceptor pairs, deeming them "putatively" hbonded because determining the positions of hbonds with high confidence required expert and detailed examination of the donor-acceptor chemistry and geometry. Jeffrey categorizes H bonds with donor-acceptor distances of 2.2-2.5 Å as “strong, mostly covalent”, 2.5-3.2 Å as “moderate, mostly electrostatic”, 3.2-4.0 Å as “weak, electrostatic” (page 12). Protein Explorer an… Usually, the partially covalent nature of a hydrogen bond is simple to determine on the basis of inter-atomic distances in the X-H-Y system. X-H distance is typically about 110 pm, whereas H-Y distance is from 160 to 200 pm. Energies are given as 40-14, 15-4, and <4 kcal/mol respectively. Hydrogen bonds can vary in strength from very weak (1–2 kJ/mol) to extremely strong (over 155 kJ/mol). Before the availability of Jmol ver. This section needs updating. Jmol can now display hydrogen bonds, as can several other software packages.

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