While ethnographies can engage with theory in all three ways listed above, most often studies either engage theory through extension and refinement. GILLMORE, PERRY, and GLATTHORN, ALAN, eds. Instead, these works were often qualitative in nature utilising one qualitative method that was not triangulated with other methods. It also explores the role, contribution and limitations of ethnographic work undertaken in a medical education context. The degree to which these techniques are used depends on the nature of the particular research study and what occurs in the local group. Naturalism proposes that the social world should be studied in its ‘natural’ state and that research should be sensitive to the nature of the setting and the phenomena being investigated. There are a range of different but complementary methods which can be utilized in ethnography. Moreover, ethnography is defined by fieldwork or the active and prolonged involvement of the ethnographer with the local context being studied. Ethnography was popularised by anthropology, but is used across a wide range of social sciences. "Posturing in Qualitative Research." For example, some people are often reluctant at the thought of being ‘scrutinised’ by researchers. physical locations) one can study ethnographically. This approach to ethnography is now widely rejected as failing to acknowledge the ethnographer and the relationships they build with the individuals engaged in their work (Atkinson et al. Ethnography uses different research techniques, which may include observations, taking field notes, informal conversations, interviews, document analysis, surveys, filming and photography… London: Sage. Three conditions of the critical ethnography are that the ethnographer must engage in the political aspects conducting research, the work must be a starting point for social critique and transformation, and the inquiry engages in reflexivity to identify the research's own limits (Foley 2002). Often rapid ethnographies access the engagement of further work in the field, or specifically try to problematise a specific issue in a study case or setting (Harris et al. If you are a team of one, it can seem in a way ridiculous, but in the context of the Coronavirus, this is likely to change. Nvivo (http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_nvivo.aspx). During the past 14 years, Joanne has worked in various research units at the University of Toronto. It is usual for ethnographers to allocate periods of time for observation in order to sample common activities (e.g. Ethnography is a scientific research strategy often used in the field of social sciences, particularly in anthropology and in some branches of sociology, also known as part of historical science that studies people, ethnic groups and other ethnic formations, their ethnogenesis, composition, resettlement, social welfare characteristics, as well as their material and spiritual culture. He has been conducting ethnographic studies in the higher education and health care sectors since 1997. Table 4 provides a useful approach to evaluate an ethnography. Finlay L. 2002. The Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education. Having said that, there are a lot of differences between a more quantitative and more qualitative approach to understanding. Fine G. 1993. The ethnography of a medical setting: Reading, writing, and rhetoric. We see mobile ethnography as an “umbrella” term and methodology that can be used to encapsulate how researchers can build a closer, real-time connection with respondents in multiple research use cases. An exploration of socialization of students into the medical profession (Pope et al. Qualitative Sociology Review publishes empirical, theoretical and methodological articles applicable to all fields and specializations within sociology, and covers a range of different methodologies, including ethnographic work. Importantly, the focus on ethnography in creating a thick description of a phenomenon may mean that software programmes are in contradiction to the purpose and defining features of ethnography. Recording the multifaceted nature of social action that occurs is a difficult task, as there are a range of temporal, spatial as well as behavioural elements which need to be documented. It will be helpful in providing key insights into understanding the essence of ethnography – its methodological roots and the methods employed to gather and analyse data, its contribution to medical education research, as well as insights to the tools and techniques which generate good quality ethnographic work. Qualitative research involves a social contract with those participating in the study, and informed consent is negotiated at each phase of the research when new information is needed or new areas of study are undertaken. Feminism is a theoretical framework that is driven by an interest in women's experiences, often focusing on power differentials, with the goal of resolving gendered inequities. In The Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education, ed. Ethnography is a research method central to knowing the world from the standpoint of its social relations. Reflexivity is a technique which involves the consideration of oneself (the researcher) while planning and conducting ethnographic research. Data collection is most often affiliated with a heavy use of resources, and so is an important aspect of research to plan and execute. New York: Academic Press. In other words, a researcher must first identify her/his research goals and then pick the method that will best meet those goals. and (3) What are the consequences for individuals and the collective when a member leaves and reenters the classroom community? In the early development of these traditions, educational researchers struggled for acceptance by both other professionals and policymakers. The ethnographic approach was later adopted by members of the Chicago School of Sociology in the 1920–1930s (e.g. Table 4  Evaluating ethnographies – five considerations (Richardson 2000). Therefore, it is common for researchers to construct more detailed questions that are generated as part of the analysis as they proceed throughout the study, or to abandon questions and generate ones more relevant to the local group or issues being studied.

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